Amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) is a hereditary anomaly of the enamel, which affects both dentitions and may cause tooth sensitivity, loss of vertical dimension, enamel deficiencies, pulp calcification, failed tooth eruption, impaction of permanent teeth and aesthetic commitment.
Enamel synthesis or amelogenesis occurs by the activity of ameloblasts after dentin formation.
Historically, AI has been known and studied since 1890, but only in 1938 it was classified separately from dentinogenesis imperfecta and considered to possibly affect both deciduous and permanent teeth.
AI can be classified according to phenotype and clinical aspect as follows:
- Type I or hypoplastic, involves problems in enamel secretion;
- Type II or hypomature, related to enamel maturation;
- Type III or hypocalcified, involves mineralization and Type IV, hypoplastic, hypomature and taurodontic.
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These teeth present different levels of color alteration, presenting dark brown color, increase of roughness and susceptibility to attrition, which results in the reduction of vertical dimension.
Autores: Rudá França Moreira , Rossana Gomes Figueiredo , Henrique Eduardo Oliveira , Ana Christina Lamosa da Fonseca , Mauro Sayão de Miranda