Titanium and titanium alloys are commonly used as dental implant materials. The process of integration of titanium with bone has been termed as “osseointegration” by Branemark.
The electrical properties and electrical stimulation of bone have been shown to control its growth and healing and can enhance osseointegration.
The metallic nature of the materials used for implant applications and the corrosive environments found in the human body, in combination with the continuous and cyclic loads to which these implants are exposed, may lead to corrosion and its corresponding electrochemical products.
Presently, most of the commercially available implant systems are made of pure titanium (CP-Ti) or titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V. Titanium and its alloys provide strength, rigidity, and ductility similar to those of other dental alloys.
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Whereas, pure titanium castings have mechanical properties similar to Type III and Type IV gold alloys, some titanium alloy castings, such as Ti-6Al-4V and Ti- 15V have properties closer to Ni-Cr and Co-Cr castings with the exception of lower modulus.
The high corrosion resistance of titanium is due to the formation of a dense and stable layer of titanium oxide on its surface. Titanium oxide is responsible for chemical stability in the human body.
This layer is formed quickly because of the reactivity of the titanium with oxygen, which originates several oxides, with TiO2 being the major oxide formed.
The corrosion resistance level stands high when exposed to most of the mineral acids, even within rather harmful media, such as hydrochloric acid or sulfuric acid, resulting in extremely low corrosion under these conditions.
Open Journal of Stomatology
Anuja Agarwal / Amit Tyagi / Anshuman Ahuja / Nishant Kumar / Nayana De, Himanshu Bhutani