Compared to general anesthesia with opioid based perioperative pain management, regional anesthesia can provide benefits of superior pain control, improved patient satisfaction, decreased stress response to surgery, reduced operative and postoperative blood loss, diminished postoperative nausea and vomiting, and decreased logistic requirements.
This will review the most common local anesthetics and adjuncts used in the US military for the application of regional anesthetic techniques, with particular emphasis on medications used for peripheral nerve block (PNB) and continuous peripheral nerve block.
Basic Review Of Local Anesthetics
Local anesthetics are valued for the ability to prevent membrane depolarization of nerve cells.
► See also: DENTAL ANESTHESIA : Mandibular Anesthesia : Gow-Gates technique
Local anesthetics prevent depolarization of nerve cells by binding to cell membrane sodium channels and inhibiting the passage of sodium ions.
The sodium channel is most susceptible to local anesthetic binding in the open state, so frequently stimulated nerves tend to be more easily blocked.
Journal of Dental and Medical Sciences
RanaSandeepSingh / Sharma Shrikant Surendra / Mehul Kapadiya / Reet Choudhary / Priyanka Sharma / Daphniecliva Tariang